Next: , Previous: , Up: srfi list spec   [Index] Miscellaneous: length, append, concatenate, reverse, zip and count

Function: length list
Function: length+ clist

Both length and length+ return the length of the argument. It is an error to pass a value to length which is not a proper list (finite and nil–terminated). In particular, this means an implementation may diverge or signal an error when length is applied to a circular list.

length+, on the other hand, returns #f when applied to a circular list.

The length of a proper list is a non–negative integer n such that cdr applied n times to the list produces the empty list.

Function: append list1 ...
Function: append! list1 ...

R5RS append returns a list consisting of the elements of list1 followed by the elements of the other list parameters.

(append '(x) '(y))        =>  (x y)
(append '(a) '(b c d))    =>  (a b c d)
(append '(a (b)) '((c)))  =>  (a (b) (c))

The resulting list is always newly allocated, except that it shares structure with the final listi argument. This last argument may be any value at all; an improper list results if it is not a proper list. All other arguments must be proper lists.

(append '(a b) '(c . d))  =>  (a b c . d)
(append '() 'a)           =>  a
(append '(x y))           =>  (x y)
(append)                  =>  ()

append! is the linear–update variant of append; it is allowed, but not required, to alter cons cells in the argument lists to construct the result list. The last argument is never altered; the result list shares structure with this parameter.

Function: concatenate list-of-lists
Function: concatenate! list-of-lists

These functions append the elements of their argument together. That is, concatenate returns:

(apply append list-of-lists)

or, equivalently:

(reduce-right append '() list-of-lists)

concatenate! is the linear–update variant, defined in terms of append! instead of append.

Note that some Scheme implementations do not support passing more than a certain number (e.g. 64) of arguments to an n–ary procedure. In these implementations, the (apply append ...) idiom would fail when applied to long lists, but concatenate would continue to function properly.

As with append and append!, the last element of the input list may be any value at all.

Function: reverse list
Function: reverse! list

R5RS reverse returns a newly allocated list consisting of the elements of list in reverse order.

(reverse '(a b c))              =>  (c b a)
(reverse '(a (b c) d (e (f))))  =>  ((e (f)) d (b c) a)

reverse! is the linear–update variant of reverse. It is permitted, but not required, to alter the argument’s cons cells to produce the reversed list.

Function: append-reverse rev-head tail
Function: append-reverse! rev-head tail

append-reverse returns:

(append (reverse rev-head) tail)

It is provided because it is a common operation, a common list–processing style calls for this exact operation to transfer values accumulated in reverse order onto the front of another list, and because the implementation is significantly more efficient than the simple composition it replaces.

But note that this pattern of iterative computation followed by a reverse can frequently be rewritten as a recursion, dispensing with the reverse and append-reverse steps, and shifting temporary, intermediate storage from the heap to the stack, which is typically a win for reasons of cache locality and eager storage reclamation.

append-reverse! is just the linear–update variant; it is allowed, but not required, to alter rev-head’s cons cells to construct the result.

Function: zip clist1 clist2 ...

Defined as:

(lambda lists (apply map list lists))

If zip is passed n lists, it returns a list as long as the shortest of these lists, each element of which is an n–element list comprised of the corresponding elements from the parameter lists.

(zip '(one two three)
     '(1 2 3)
     '(odd even odd even odd even odd even))
  => ((one 1 odd) (two 2 even) (three 3 odd))

(zip '(1 2 3))
  => ((1) (2) (3))

At least one of the argument lists must be finite:

(zip '(3 1 4 1) (circular-list #f #t))
  => ((3 #f) (1 #t) (4 #f) (1 #t))
Function: unzip1 list
Function: unzip2 list
Function: unzip3 list
Function: unzip4 list
Function: unzip5 list

unzip1 takes a list of lists, where every list must contain at least one element, and returns a list containing the initial element of each such list. That is, it returns (map car lists).

unzip2 takes a list of lists, where every list must contain at least two elements, and returns two values: a list of the first elements, and a list of the second elements.

unzip3 does the same for the first three elements of the lists, and so forth.

(unzip2 '((1 one) (2 two) (3 three)))
  => (1 2 3)
     (one two three)
Function: count pred clist1 ...

pred is a procedure taking as many arguments as there are lists and returning a single value. It is applied element–wise to the elements of the lists, and a count is tallied of the number of elements that produce a true value. This count is returned.

count is “iterative” in that it is guaranteed to apply pred to the list elements in a left–to–right order. The counting stops when the shortest list expires.

(count even? '(3 1 4 1 5 9 2 5 6))                => 3
(count <     '(1 2 4 8) '(2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16))   => 3

At least one of the argument lists must be finite:

(count < '(3 1 4 1) (circular-list 1 10)) => 2

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